Zâmbia flag Zâmbia: Contexto político-econômico

Valores de comércio da Zâmbia

Foreign Trade in Figures

Zambia is open to foreign trade, which accounts for 86% of the country's GDP (World Bank, 2021). Zambia's trade policy aims to diversify its economy through privatisation programs and the expansion of its export base. The country mainly exports copper (75%), ferro-alloys (1.5%), electrical energy (1.3%), cement (1.3%), waters (1.2%). As for the country's main imports, they include petroleum oils (8.4%), mineral or chemical fertilisers (3.9%), medicaments (3.4%), copper ores (3.1%), and motor vehicles (3%).

The country is a member of COMESA and has signed Interim Economic Partnership Agreements (Interim EPAs) with the European Commission. The country became a member of the WTO in 1995. Customs duties are high, but the country has few non-tariff trade barriers. Certain products such as crude oil, medical supplies, and fertilisers are exempt from import duties. However, irregularities in the tax system and high transportation costs are real trade barriers. Zambian products are oriented towards Switzerland, China, Singapore, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and South Africa, while the country mainly imports from South Africa, China, India, the United Arab Emirates, and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Zambia's trade balance has been experiencing a structural surplus in recent years. In 2021, exports of goods amounted to USD 11.1 billion, while imports reached USD 7 billion, resulting in a trade balance of USD 4.8 billion. As for services, exports reached USD 501 million, while imports amounted to USD 1.2 billion, amounting to a trade balance of USD 4 billion (WTO).

Foreign Trade Values 20182019202020212022
Imports of Goods (million USD) 9,4667,1735,2856,4359,047
Exports of Goods (million USD) 9,0347,0397,92410,10111,651
Imports of Services (million USD) 1,6781,5342,2621,2931,876
Exports of Services (million USD) 9531,012556526933

Source: World Trade Organisation (WTO) ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Indicators 20182019202020212022
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 74.968.879.386.065.6
Trade Balance (million USD) 5147443,2164,8163,369
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) -2102221,5104,0372,426
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 36.934.232.533.927.2
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 38.034.646.852.138.4

Source: World Bank ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Forecasts 2023 (e)2024 (e)2025 (e)2026 (e)2027 (e)
Volume of exports of goods and services (Annual % change) -
Volume of imports of goods and services (Annual % change)

Source: IMF, World Economic Outlook ; Latest available data

Note: (e) Estimated Data

International Economic Cooperation
• Cotonou Agreement
• African Growth and Opportunity Act beneficiary country
• China Special Preferential Agreement
• Member of World Trade Organization (WTO) since 1995
• Member of Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)
• Member of
Southern African Development Community (SADC)

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
Switzerland 42.1%
China 18.9%
Singapore 13.5%
Democratic Republic of Congo 9.7%
South Africa 2.6%
See More Countries 13.2%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
South Africa 31.3%
China 12.6%
India 6.3%
United Arab Emirates 5.7%
Democratic Republic of Congo 4.6%
See More Countries 39.5%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.


Main Products

10.1 bn USD of products exported in 2021
Copper, unrefined; copper anodes for electrolytic...Copper, unrefined; copper anodes for electrolytic refining 55.5%
Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought ...Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought (excl. copper alloys of heading 7405) 19.5%
Ferro-alloysFerro-alloys 1.5%
Electrical energyElectrical energy 1.3%
Cement, incl. cement clinkers, whether or not...Cement, incl. cement clinkers, whether or not coloured 1.3%
See More Products 20.9%
6.4 bn USD of products imported in 2021
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 8.4%
Mineral or chemical nitrogenous fertilisers (excl....Mineral or chemical nitrogenous fertilisers (excl. those in pellet or similar forms, or in packages with a gross weight of <= 10 kg) 3.9%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses "incl. those in the form of transdermal administration" or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 3.4%
Copper ores and concentratesCopper ores and concentrates 3.1%
Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl....Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl. chassis with engine and cab 3.0%
See More Products 78.3%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.


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Últimas atualizações em November 2023