Peru flag Peru: Contexto político-econômico

Valores de comércio do Peru

Foreign Trade in Figures

Peru is a member of the WTO and very open to international trade, which represents 58% of GDP. The country mainly exports copper (27.4%), gold (12.7%), petroleum gas (5.3%), petroleum oils (4.1%), and flours of meat (3.1%); while it imports petroleum oils (17.3%), motor vehicles (3%), telephone sets (2.7%), motor vehicles for the transport of goods (2.4%), and maize or corn (2.1% - data Comtrade 2022).

In 2022, the country's main export partners were China (30.1%), the United States (14.5%), Japan (4.9%), Canada (4.5%), and South Korea (4.5%), as imports came chiefly from China (26.1%), the United States (23.7%), Brazil (7.0%), Argentina (5.0%), and Mexico (3.3% - data Comtrade). Nearly 95% of Peru's exports are covered by Free Trade Agreements currently in force, which enables Peruvian products to enter, subject to the rules of origin of each trade agreement, under preferential conditions to 53 countries, including Canada, Chile, China, the member countries of the European Union, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand and the United States, among others. The country is seeking to position itself as a regional hub for trade between Latin America and the APEC countries (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation).

Peru has a structurally positive trade balance. In 2022, exports of goods increased to USD 61.3 billion (+2.7% y-o-y), but imports increased at a faster pace (+19.7% y-o-y) and reached USD 60.9 billion. According to the WTO, imports of services in 2022 totalled USD 13.6 billion, while exports stood at USD 4.9 billion. Peruvian exports, as of the end of 2023, saw an increase (+1.1%) and hit a new historical high, reaching USD 64.355 billion. This growth was propelled by the expansion of mining exports (+11.4%) and agro-industrial exports (+9.2%). At the close of 2023, Peruvian imports totaled USD 51,962.9 million, reflecting a 13.6% decrease compared to 2022, a year marked by record-high imports in Peru (data SUNAT).

 
Foreign Trade Values 20192020202120222023
Imports of Goods (million USD) 42,28436,14050,89160,97952,306
Exports of Goods (million USD) 46,44439,60059,64862,91160,756
Imports of Services (million USD) 10,6807,57910,71813,60413,528
Exports of Services (million USD) 6,6962,7182,9474,9625,731

Source: World Trade Organisation (WTO) ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Indicators 20182019202020212022
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 48.646.943.856.058.4
Trade Balance (million USD) 7,2016,8798,10214,97710,333
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) 3,8192,8953,2417,2061,691
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 3.51.7-15.426.34.2
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 3.40.3-16.419.25.9
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 23.422.921.126.529.1
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 25.224.022.729.529.3

Source: World Bank ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Forecasts 20232024 (e)2025 (e)2026 (e)2027 (e)
Volume of exports of goods and services (Annual % change) 0.72.33.52.72.6
Volume of imports of goods and services (Annual % change) -2.82.23.23.13.1

Source: IMF, World Economic Outlook ; Latest available data

Note: (e) Estimated Data

 
International Economic Cooperation
Andean Community of Nations
The free trade treaty with the United States came into force in February 2009.
Peru signed a Free Trade Agreement with China.
Peru signed a Free Trade Agreement with the European Free Trade Association (EFTA).
Peru is part of the Pacific Alliance.
 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2022
China 30.1%
United States 14.5%
Japan 4.9%
Canada 4.5%
South Korea 4.5%
See More Countries 41.6%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2022
China 26.1%
United States 23.7%
Brazil 7.0%
Argentina 5.0%
Mexico 3.3%
See More Countries 34.8%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

Main Products

58.2 bn USD of products exported in 2022
Copper ores and concentratesCopper ores and concentrates 23.1%
Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form 12.7%
Petroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbonsPetroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbons 5.3%
Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought ...Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought (excl. copper alloys of heading 7405) 4.3%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 4.1%
See More Products 50.5%
60.3 bn USD of products imported in 2022
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 13.1%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude 4.2%
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 3.0%
Telephone sets, incl. telephones for cellular...Telephone sets, incl. telephones for cellular networks or for other wireless networks; other apparatus for the transmission or reception of voice, images or other data, incl. apparatus for communication in a wired or wireless network [such as a local or wide area network]; parts thereof (excl. than transmission or reception apparatus of heading 8443, 8525, 8527 or 8528) 2.7%
Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl....Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl. chassis with engine and cab 2.4%
See More Products 74.5%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

To go further, check out our service Import-Export Flows.

 

Main Services

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

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