Namíbia flag Namíbia: Contexto político-econômico

Valores de comércio da Namíbia

Foreign Trade in Figures

Namibia is very open to foreign trade, which represents 92% of the country’s GDP (World Bank). Customs duties are low, but some trade barriers remain, including a number of import and export restrictions, mostly on agricultural products. The country's economy is closely linked to that of South Africa, with the Namibian dollar pegged to the South African rand. The country is a member of the SACU (Southern African Customs Union) and SADC (Southern African Development Community). Namibia also ratified the African Continental Free Trade Agreement. In 2016, the EU signed an EPA with the SADC EPA Group comprising Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland. According to 2022 data by Comtrade, the country’s main exports are diamonds (27.1% of the total), gold (6.9%), petroleum oils (6.3%), fish fillets and other fish meat (5.3%), frozen fish (5.1%), and copper ores and concentrates (3.5%); whereas imports are led by petroleum oils (17.3%), copper ores and concentrates (4.5%), diamonds (3.3%), motor vehicles for the transport of goods (3.1%), and precious-metal ores and concentrates (2.2%). Namibia's exports are mainly directed to South Africa (16.3%), Botswana (16.1%), China (11.5%), Zambia (7.2%), the Democratic Republic of Congo (5.2%), and the Netherlands (5.1%). South Africa (38.9%), China (7.6%), India (4.7%), the United Arab Emirates (3.8%), and the United States (3.3%) are the main suppliers (Comtrade, latest data available). Namibia’s trade balance is structurally in deficit because of the country’s high demand for high-valued manufactured commodities and machinery, and exports of mainly primary commodities that are of low value, with the exception of diamonds. In 2022, merchandise exports amounted to USD 6.3 billion (-12.7% year-on-year), while imports decreased at a faster pace and stood at USD 7.9 billion (-20%%). In the same year, exports of services reached USD 925 million, while imports amounted to USD 854 million (WTO). Overall, the World Bank estimated the country’s trade deficit at 18.3% of its GDP (stable compared to one year earlier). According to preliminary figures by Namibia’s Statistics Agency, in 2022 the value of exports reached NAD 104.4 billion via-à-vis NAD 136.8 billion in imports.

 
Foreign Trade Values 20182019202020212022
Imports of Goods (million USD) 8,2898,0866,82310,9927,905
Exports of Goods (million USD) 7,4886,2565,6007,2646,339
Imports of Services (million USD) 604627747854854
Exports of Services (million USD) 762702684674925

Source: World Trade Organisation (WTO) ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Indicators 20182019202020212022
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 81.782.976.982.094.0
Trade Balance (million USD) -1,555-1,302-985-1,957-2,275
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) -1,397-1,227-1,048-2,137-2,204
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 1.2-4.0-15.020.323.6
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 16.1-8.7-16.61.420.0
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 45.846.543.250.156.4
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 35.936.433.731.937.6

Source: World Bank ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Forecasts 20232024 (e)2025 (e)2026 (e)2027 (e)
Volume of exports of goods and services (Annual % change) 3.77.67.94.54.2
Volume of imports of goods and services (Annual % change) -1.74.63.84.14.0

Source: IMF, World Economic Outlook ; Latest available data

Note: (e) Estimated Data

 
International Economic Cooperation
Member of Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)

Member of Southern African Development Community (SADC)

Member of South African Customs Union (SACU)

Member of the World Trade Organization (WTO)

Member of the African, Carribean and Pacific Agreement

Member of the Cotonou Agreement

African Growth Opportunity Act (AGOA) beneficiary country

Preferential market access to 34 countries for Namibian products, under the Generalised System of Preferences

Preferential trade agreement with Zimbabwe

Economic partnership agreement signed with the EU in June 2016

 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2022
South Africa 16.3%
Botswana 16.1%
China 11.5%
Zambia 7.2%
Democratic Republic of Congo 5.2%
See More Countries 43.8%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2022
South Africa 38.9%
China 7.6%
India 4.7%
United Arab Emirates 3.8%
United States 3.3%
See More Countries 41.7%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

Main Products

6.3 bn USD of products exported in 2022
Diamonds, whether or not worked, but not mounted...Diamonds, whether or not worked, but not mounted or set (excl. unmounted stones for pick-up styluses, worked stones, suitable for use as parts of meters, measuring instruments or other articles of chapter 90) 27.1%
Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought...Gold, incl. gold plated with platinum, unwrought or not further worked than semi-manufactured or in powder form 6.9%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 6.3%
Fish fillets and other fish meat, whether or not...Fish fillets and other fish meat, whether or not minced, fresh, chilled or frozen 5.3%
Frozen fish (excl. fish fillets and other fish...Frozen fish (excl. fish fillets and other fish meat of heading 0304) 5.1%
See More Products 49.2%
7.9 bn USD of products imported in 2022
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 17.3%
Copper ores and concentratesCopper ores and concentrates 4.5%
Diamonds, whether or not worked, but not mounted...Diamonds, whether or not worked, but not mounted or set (excl. unmounted stones for pick-up styluses, worked stones, suitable for use as parts of meters, measuring instruments or other articles of chapter 90) 3.3%
Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl....Motor vehicles for the transport of goods, incl. chassis with engine and cab 3.1%
Precious-metal ores and concentratesPrecious-metal ores and concentrates 2.2%
See More Products 69.5%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

To go further, check out our service Import Export Flows.

 

Main Services

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

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Últimas atualizações em April 2024