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Foreign Trade in Figures

Yemen's foreign trade, which once represented more than 80% of GDP, dwindled with the civil war, reaching a mere 49% of GDP in 2018, according to the World Bank, which has stopped releasing data on Yemen's trade since that date. Before the conflict, Yemen's economy heavily relied on exports of crude oil, which accounted for the majority of the country's foreign exchange earnings. However, the conflict has severely impacted Yemen's oil production and exports, leading to a decline in revenue and an increased reliance on imports. According to data by OEC, in 2022, the main exports were crude petroleum (57.3%), scrap iron (6.4%), gold (5.6%), molluscs (3.4%), and non-fillet frozen fish (3.1%); whereas imports comprised chiefly wheat (9.2%), raw iron bars (4.6%), rice (4.1%), raw sugar (2.6%), and concentrated milk (2.4%).

Saudi Arabia was Yemen's top trading partner prior to the civil war, as it received more than 30% of its exports. According to the latest figures available from OEC, in 2022, Yemen’s main customers were China (31.7%), Thailand (20.5%), India (11.9%), United Arab Emirates (6.9%), and Oman (4.8%); with imports coming from China (25.7%), United Arab Emirates (14.0%), Turkey (10.0%), India (9.8%), and Oman (3.8%). Yemen is a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA), and it also signed bilateral trade agreements with several countries, including China, India, and Turkey. However, the conflict has limited Yemen's ability to fully benefit from these agreements, as many ports and trade routes have been disrupted.

Yemen has a structurally negative trade balance as it needs to import most of its energy consumption, unlike most other countries in the region. According to data from the WTO, in 2022, Yemen exported USD 903 million worth of goods (+36.4% year-on-year), while imports stood at USD 5.3 billion (+5.1% year-on-year). No data was released concerning trade in commercial services. In October 2022, the UN-brokered truce expired, and despite an informal continuation, the situation deteriorated with a blockade imposed by the Houthi on IRG's oil exports. This prolonged blockade significantly decreased exports throughout 2023.

Foreign Trade Indicators 20192020202120222023
Imports of Goods (million USD) 4,7214,6765,0545,2895,031
Exports of Goods (million USD) 652404662690226
Imports of Services (million USD) 0000n/a
Exports of Services (million USD) 0000n/a

Source: WTO – World Trade Organisation ; World Bank - Latest available data.

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Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
Egypt 49.6%
Türkiye 28.0%
Oman 10.5%
Eritrea 0.9%
Indonesia 0.7%
See More Countries 10.3%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
United Arab Emirates 24.0%
China 10.4%
Saudi Arabia 6.5%
Oman 5.5%
Türkiye 5.4%
See More Countries 48.2%

Source: Comtrade, Latest Available Data

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Main Products

0.0 bn USD of products exported in 2019
Wheat or meslin flourWheat or meslin flour 62.7%
Cereal groats, meal and pelletsCereal groats, meal and pellets 33.5%
Residues of starch manufacture and similar...Residues of starch manufacture and similar residues, beet-pulp, bagasse and other waste of sugar manufacture, brewing or distilling dregs and waste, whether or not in the form of pellets 1.3%
Made-up clothing accessories, knitted or...Made-up clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted; knitted or crocheted parts of garments or of clothing accessories, n.e.s. 0.2%
Fibreboard of wood or other ligneous materials,...Fibreboard of wood or other ligneous materials, whether or not agglomerated with resins or other organic bonding agents (excl. particle board, whether or not bonded with one or more sheets of fibreboard; laminated wood with a layer of plywood; composite panels with outer layers of fibreboard; paperboard; furniture components identifiable as such) 0.2%
See More Products 2.1%
4.7 bn USD of products imported in 2019
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 28.3%
Wheat and meslinWheat and meslin 11.6%
Cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose, in...Cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose, in solid form 5.0%
Maize or cornMaize or corn 3.5%
RiceRice 3.0%
See More Products 48.6%

Source: Comtrade, Latest Available Data


To go further, check out our service Import controls and Export Controls

To go further, check out our service Import-Export Flows


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List of tariffs and local taxes that apply to your product on our service Customs Duties


Trade Compliance

International Conventions
Member of the World Trade Organization (WTO)
Party to the International Coffee Agreement
International Economic Cooperation
The country is part of the Greater Arab Free Trade Area(GAFTA), a pact of the Arab League entered into force in January 2005 which aims to form an Arabic free trade area.
Useful Resources
Yemen Customs Authority
National Organisation of Intellectual Property
The General Department for Intellectual Property Protection.

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Latest Update: May 2024