Finlândia flag Finlândia: Contexto político-econômico

Valores de comércio da Finlândia

Foreign Trade in Figures

Finland is a highly industrialised country whose economy relies heavily on foreign trade, which represented 93% of its GDP in 2022 (World Bank – latest data available). In the same year, Finland mainly exported chemicals (21.4%), metal and metal products (19.8%), machinery and equipment (18.2%), and forestry products (16.9%); importing petroleum products (20.4%), electricity (13.4%), transport equipment (9.9%), and industrial machinery (9.2% - data Finnish Customs).

According to data by Comtrade, the main export partners were Germany (11.5%), Sweden (10.7%), the U.S. (9.4%) and the Netherlands (7.1%); while the country’s imports came chiefly from Sweden (12.5%), Germany (12.3%), China (9.1%), Norway (6.9%), and Russia (6.6%).

Finland's trade balance had traditionally been positive in the past, but its performance deteriorated in the last decade, alternating slightly positive results with negative ones. In 2022, the total export of goods (at USD 86 billion, +4.8% y-o-y) was below the total value of imports (USD 97.2 billion,+13.1% y-o-y); whereas exports of services stood at USD 34 billion (+1.7%) against almost USD 40.4 billion of import (with an annual double-digit increase of 11.8% - data by WTO). Overall, the country’s external balance was negative by 2.4% of GDP in 2022 (World Bank). According to the latest figures from Statistics Finland, in the first ten months of 2023 the total value of exports decreased by 7.1% and the value of imports by 17.9% year-on-year. In the same period, the aggregated deficit amounted to EUR 1.3 billion.

 
Foreign Trade Values 20192020202120222023
Imports of Goods (million USD) 73,71668,26886,01397,32982,345
Exports of Goods (million USD) 73,46866,22081,99686,06982,355
Imports of Services (million USD) 36,55832,84936,51641,13443,683
Exports of Services (million USD) 34,40530,00233,85234,77134,349

Source: World Trade Organisation (WTO) ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Indicators 20182019202020212022
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 78.279.671.579.092.5
Trade Balance (million USD) 3332,5793,2262,707-385
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) -3,43542038027-6,799
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 5.72.4-6.26.07.5
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 1.56.7-7.86.01.7
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 39.739.735.739.547.6
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 38.539.935.839.644.9

Source: World Bank ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Forecasts 20232024 (e)2025 (e)2026 (e)2027 (e)
Volume of exports of goods and services (Annual % change) -0.03.23.23.23.2
Volume of imports of goods and services (Annual % change) -3.92.23.83.13.1

Source: IMF, World Economic Outlook ; Latest available data

Note: (e) Estimated Data

 
International Economic Cooperation
Finland is a member of the following international economic organisations: ICC, European Economic Area, WTO, European Union, G9, IMF, OECD, among others. For the full list of economic and other international organisations in which participates Finland click here. International organisation membership of Finland is also outlined here.
Free Trade Agreements
The up-to-date list of Free Trade Agreements signed by Finland can be consulted here.
 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2022
Germany 11.5%
Sweden 10.7%
United States 9.4%
Netherlands 7.1%
China 4.7%
See More Countries 56.6%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2022
Sweden 12.5%
Germany 12.3%
China 9.1%
Norway 6.9%
Russia 6.6%
See More Countries 52.6%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

Main Products

86.2 bn USD of products exported in 2022
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 8.1%
Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides...Paper and paperboard, coated on one or both sides with kaolin "China clay" or other inorganic substances, with or without a binder, and with no other coating, whether or not surface-coloured, surface-decorated or printed, in rolls or in square or rectangular sheets, of any size (excl. all other coated papers and paperboards) 4.7%
Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a...Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a width of >= 600 mm, hot-rolled or cold-rolled "cold-reduced" 4.3%
Chemical wood pulp, soda or sulphate (excl....Chemical wood pulp, soda or sulphate (excl. dissolving grades) 3.3%
Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or peeled,...Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or peeled, whether or not planed, sanded or end-jointed, of a thickness of > 6 mm 3.2%
See More Products 76.5%
97.4 bn USD of products imported in 2022
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude 7.5%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 5.0%
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 3.7%
Electrical energyElectrical energy 3.2%
Nickel mattes, nickel oxide sinters and other...Nickel mattes, nickel oxide sinters and other intermediate products of nickel metallurgy : 1.9%
See More Products 78.6%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

To go further, check out our service Import-Export Flows.

 

Main Services

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2024. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

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