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Tax rates in Turkey

Tax Rates

Consumption Taxes

Nature of the Tax
Katma Deger Vergisi (KDV) or Value-Added Tax (VAT)
Tax Rate
Standard rate of 18%
Reduced Tax Rate

Reduced rates of 8% apply to foodstuffs; textile products; pharmaceuticals; medical products; some construction equipment; admission charges for cinemas, theatres, and operas.
A reduced rate of 1% applies to newspapers and magazines; basic foodstuffs; used passenger cars.

Form 1 April 2022, reduced VAT rates apply to:

  • Land supplies - reduced from 18% to 8%
  • All seeds and saplings certified by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry - reduced to 1%
  • Used vehicles supplied by taxpayers engaged in the trade of second-hand motor vehicles - increased from 1% to 18%
  • Yachts, boats, and recreational ships - increased from 1% to 18%
  • Supply and leasing of all medical devices - 8%
  • All food and beverage services - 8%
  • Milk collection tanks, machinery and devices used in dairy production, and machinery for separating or cleaning eggs, fruit, and other agricultural products - reduced to 8%
  • Soap, shampoo, detergent, disinfectants, wet wipes, toilet paper, paper towels, tissue paper and napkins, and baby and adult diapers, sanitary pads, etc. - reduced from 18% to 8%
Other Consumption Taxes
OTV or Özel Tüketim Vergisi is a special consumption tax levied on petroleum products, automobiles and other vehicles, tobacco and alcohol and luxury products. Telecommunication services are subject to a special communication tax (Özel İletişim Vergisi).
Motor vehicle taxes are collected as fixed amounts on an annual basis, calculated from the age and engine capacity of the vehicles.

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Corporate Taxes

Company Tax
23% from 2022 (20% from 2023)
the corporate income tax rate is reduced by 1% for profits derived exclusively from manufacturing activities, and exclusively from export operations
Tax Rate For Foreign Companies
Resident companies, with their legal seat or place of management in Turkey, are full taxpayers and are taxed on worldwide income. Non-resident companies are limited taxpayers and taxed only on income derived in Turkey.
The branch profit transferred to headquarters is subject to dividend withholding tax at a rate of 10% from 2022 (was 15% until 2021 - the rate could be reduced under a tax treaty).
Capital Gains Taxation
Long term capital gains of a company are taxed as ordinary income, with an exemption of 75% of capital gains from the sale of shares in domestic participations (provided that the shares have been held for at least two years and the gains from the sale will be kept in a special reserve account for at least five years).
Capital gains from the sale of immovable property held for a minimum period of two years are exempt from tax up to 50%.
Capital gains derived from the sale of foreign participations that have been held for at least two years by an international holding company resident in Turkey are exempt from corporate income tax.
Main Allowable Deductions and Tax Credits
Expenses that can be deducted from the corporation tax base include ordinary and necessary expenses incurred in the course of general business, real property tax related to business, bad debts, and expenses for research and development. An allowance is available until the end of 2023 to companies that carry out qualifying R&D and design activities (100% of expenditure in addition to a deduction for such expenditure in the statutory accounts). Moreover, 80% of the income tax computed on the wages of R&D and design personnel is exempt from income withholding tax (the rate is increased to 95% for employees with a PhD or master’s degree in fundamental sciences, and 90% for employees with a master’s degree in any field or an undergraduate degree in fundamental sciences). Companies are also exempt from stamp duty on any R&D-related documents and goods imported to this end are exempt from customs duties. In addition, an increase in R&D expenditure compared to the previous year (at least by 20%) gives rise to further deductions.

Start-up expenses are considered deductible expenses as incurred. Moreover, the taxpayer has the option to capitalise such expenses and depreciate them over five years in equal amounts.

Donations to listed charities and for the construction of schools, hospitals, and scientific research organisations are deductible at up to 5% of the company’s gross profit. Under certain conditions, payments for pensions and employee termination benefits are deductible for corporate income tax purposes.

"Strategic" investments (as determined by the government, such as investment in the production of products that rely heavily on imports) give rise to a deduction of up to 100% of corporate tax, along with several other advantages concerning customs duties, employer's social security contributions, etc.

Tax losses can be carried forward for up to five years. The carryback of losses is prohibited. Charges for royalties and interest paid to foreign affiliates may be deductible for corporate income tax purposes when transfer pricing and thin capitalisation rules are followed.

For further information on available tax incentives, consult the dedicated page on the Revenue Administration portal.

Other Corporate Taxes
Buildings and land owned in Turkey are subject to an annual real estate tax at different rates: 0.2% for buildings, 0.1% for dwellings, 0.1% for land, and 0.3% for building sites (such rates are increased by 100% for buildings and land located within larger cities).
Real estate transfers are subject to a tax calculated as 4% of the acquisition/transfer value, which is split equally between the buyer and the seller.

Stamp tax applies to a wide range of documents, including, financial statements, and payrolls. Stamp tax is levied as a percentage of the value stated on the agreements at rates varying between 0.189% and 0.948%. Salary payments are subject to stamp tax at a rate of 0.759% over the gross amounts.

From 1 March 2020, Turkey levies a "Digital Service Tax" of 7.5% on service providers whose revenue derived from digital services during the previous fiscal year exceeds TRY 20 million in Turkey or EUR 750 million worldwide. The president is authorized to double the rate or reduce it to 1%, depending on the type of digital service.

A banking and insurance transaction tax applies at a general rate of 5% on bank and insurance charges. A Resource Utilisation Support Fund applies on foreign currency denominated loans at varying rates according to their maturity, as well as on TRY denominated loans with a maturity of less than a year. Foreign exchange purchases from banks, insurance companies, and foreign exchange offices, are subject to a 0.2% rate.
Other taxes include a tourism share (levied at TRY 2 and TRY 7.5 per TRY 1,000 of total net sales and leasing income) and an accommodation tax ( set at 2%, but the implementation of the tax has been postponed to 2023 due to the COVID-19 crisis).

Social security contributions for both the employer and the employee total 34.5% of an employee’s salary; 14% paid by the employee and 20.5% by the employer. In addition to social security payments, unemployment contribution is 3% of the salary, 1% for the employee and 2% for the employer. The monthly social security ceiling is TRY 37,530 for the period running from 1 January to 31 December 2022; with a minimum base of computation of TRY 5,004.

Other Domestic Resources
Revenue Administration
Doing Business: Turkey, to obtain a summary of taxes and mandatory contributions

Country Comparison For Corporate Taxation

  Turkey Eastern Europe & Central Asia United States Germany
Number of Payments of Taxes per Year 10.0 13.9 10.6 9.0
Time Taken For Administrative Formalities (Hours) 170.0 226.2 175.0 218.0
Total Share of Taxes (% of Profit) 42.3 36.5 36.6 48.8

Source: Doing Business, Latest available data.

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Individual Taxes

Tax Rate

 Income Tax Rate (Employment Income) 2022
TRY 0 to 32,000 15%
TRY 32,001 - 70,000 20%
TRY 70,001 - 250,000 (170,000 for non-employment income) 27%
TRY 250,001 (170,000 for non-employment income) - 880,000 35%
Above TRY 880,000 40%
Allowable Deductions and Tax Credits
For individual employees, no business deductions are permitted. Contributions to approved pension schemes within Turkey are allowed for deductions.

Donations to specific institutions are tax-deductible. Individuals paying their taxes via annual tax returns can deduct their documented education expenses incurred in Turkey by themselves and their families from income declared on the tax return, up to 10% of the income tax base. Personal insurance premiums (for self, spouse, and/or children) are deductible but are limited to 15% of the individual's monthly gross income and annual minimum wage amount.

For business income, the same general deductions as apply to corporations are available.

Special Expatriate Tax Regime
Individual residents are taxed on worldwide income while non-resident individuals are only taxed on income derived in Turkey. There is no special tax regime for expatriates.

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Double Taxation Treaties

Countries With Whom a Double Taxation Treaty Have Been Signed
List of Double Tax Treaties signed by Turkey
Withholding Taxes
Dividends: 0 (resident companies)/15% (resident individuals and non-residents); Interest: 0% (residents and for "financial entities")/10% (interest on loan for non-residents); Royalties: 0 (resident companies)/20% (resident individuals and non-residents)

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Sources of Fiscal Information

Tax Authorities
Overview of Turkey's tax measures in response to Covid-19
Revenue Administration
Other Domestic Resources
Invest in Turkey

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Latest Update: June 2022