Luxembourg flag Luxembourg: Economic outline

Economic Outline

Economic Indicators

For the latest updates on the key economic responses from governments to address the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, please consult the IMF's policy tracking platform Policy Responses to COVID-19.

Luxembourg’s economy is characterized by its financial system and a high degree of international openness. The financial sector is the main driving force behind the Grand Duchy’s economy, representing about one-third of the country’s GDP, making Luxembourg vulnerable to external shocks. After contracting following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, Luxembourg’s GDP rebounded in 2021 and grew an estimated 1.6% in 2022 on the back of resilient private consumption and a robust financial sector. The IMF forecasts growth to decelerate to 1.1% in 2023 as private consumption is expected to rise, supported by government measures to mitigate the impact of high energy prices and by the indexations of wages. Investment, which will be subdued this year amid the tightening of financial conditions, should support growth in 2024 when GDP is forecast to rise by 2.5% (IMF).

Luxembourg is the wealthiest country in the world in terms of GDP per capita (PPP) and has one of the highest current account surpluses as a share of GDP in the eurozone. It generally maintains a healthy budgetary position; however, the budget deficit turned negative in 2022 (-0.7% of GDP) due to the government measures taken to offset high energy prices and inflation. Some of these support packages were extended in the 2023 budget, including the reduction in the prices of fuels and heating oil, energy subsidies for low-income households and support schemes for companies affected by high energy costs, as well as a 1% temporary reduction in VAT, resulting in a forecast fiscal deficit of 2.4% of GDP in 2023 (Fitch Ratings). The public debt level is among the lowest in the region, though it increased to 25.4% in 2022 according to the IMF, with an upward trend projected over the forecast horizon (25.8% this year and 26% in 2024). After peaking in the second quarter of the year, headline inflation gradually decelerated in the last two quarters, driven by the slowdown in energy and services price growth, while prices of food and non-energy industrial goods continued to accelerate. For the year as a whole, inflation reached 8.4%, with major contributions from energy and food prices. The IMF expects inflationary pressures to ease in 2023 (3.7%) and in 2024 (2.3%, close to the ECB’s target). In recent years, the country has implemented a policy of legal reforms to respond a criticism regarding the lack of transparency of its financial centre and its fiscal dumping policy towards multinationals. Luxembourg is cooperating with other countries to fight against fraud and fiscal evasion. Introducing an automated exchange of fiscal information among states has put its banking secrecy de facto to an end. The country was taken off the list of uncooperative tax havens, established by the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes.

After rising following the outbreak of the pandemic, unemployment decreased to 5% in 2022 and is expected to remain stable over the forecast horizon. The working opportunities attract a large number of border workers: almost 200,000 workers cross every day the French, Belgian and German borders. Despite being the countries with the highest income per capita (USD 141,587 at PPP in 2022), around 116,000 residents live below the poverty line, according to the latest data available from Statec (in Luxembourg, the poverty line is calculated at 60% of the median standard of living, i.e. EUR 2,177 per month per adult).

Main Indicators 20222023 (E)2024 (E)2025 (E)2026 (E)
GDP (billions USD) 81.7189.1094.0399.09103.77
GDP (Constant Prices, Annual % Change) 1.4-
GDP per Capita (USD) 126,598135,605140,308144,960148,829
General Government Balance (in % of GDP) 1.0-0.2-1.1-1.1-0.8
General Government Gross Debt (in % of GDP) 24.827.629.330.230.4
Inflation Rate (%) n/a3.
Unemployment Rate (% of the Labour Force)
Current Account (billions USD) 2.963.283.794.104.36
Current Account (in % of GDP)

Source: IMF – World Economic Outlook Database, 2016

Note: (e) Estimated Data

Monetary Indicators 20152016201720192020
Euro (EUR) - Average Annual Exchange Rate For 1 ZAR

Source: World Bank, 2015


Return to top

Any Comment About This Content? Report It to Us.


© eexpand, All Rights Reserved.
Latest Update: November 2023