Iraq flag Iraq: Economic and Political Overview

The political framework of Iraq

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Abdul Latif Rashid (since 13 October 2022)
Prime Minister: Mohammed Shia' Al Sudani (since 27 October 2022)
Next Election Dates
Legislative: October 2025
Main Political Parties
Iraq is a multi-party state. After the 2021 elections, the five main parties are:
- the Saairun (Forward) Alliance: led by prominent Shi’ite nationalist figure, Muqtada al-Sadr.
- the al-Fatah Alliance: led by pro-Iran Hadi Al-Amri, leader of Badr Corps, a guerrilla force formed by Iran to fight the Iraqi army during the war between Iraq and Iran
- the al-Nasr (Victory) Alliance: the party of the Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi, which only came in third in the elections;
- the State of the Law (SOL) Coalition;
- the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP)

Other numerous smaller, religious, local, tribal and minority parties are:
-Al Sadiqun Bloc
-Badr Organization
-Da`wa Party
-Fadilah Party
-Goran Movement
-Iraqi Communist Party
-Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq (ISCI)
-National Wisdom Trend
-New Generation Movement
-Our Identity
-Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK)
-Wataniyah coalition

Executive Power
Iraq is a federal parliamentary republic. The executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers as the head of government, as well as the President of Iraq. The President approves laws, which are voted by the Parliament.
The Prime Minister chairs the Council of Ministers and can dismiss a minister, with the support of a majority in the Parliament.
Legislative Power
The legislative power is hold by the Council of Representatives, a parliament composed by 329 members, of whom 320 chosen in the general elections held every four years, while 9 are appointed to represent minorities.
Formally, a Federation Council composed by representatives from the regions and governorates should assist the Council of Representatives, but in practice it has no power as its precise composition and responsibilities are not defined in the constitution.

Indicator of Freedom of the Press


The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:

Indicator of Political Freedom


The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Not Free
Political Freedom:

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House


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Latest Update: December 2023