Estonia flag Estonia: Economic and Political Overview

Foreign trade figures of Estonia

Foreign Trade in Figures

Estonia is considered one of the most liberal countries in the world and is very open to trade, which represents 157% of GDP (World Bank, latest edition). In 2022, the country mainly exported mineral products (19%), electrical equipment (13%), wood (11%), and agricultural products (10%); while the main imports comprised mineral products (20%), electrical equipment (11%), machinery and mechanical appliances (10%), and base metals and related articles (10% - data Statistics Estonia).

In 2022, the country’s major trading partners were Finland (15% of total exports), Latvia (14%) and Sweden (9%). The top partner countries for Estonia’s imports of goods were Finland (16% of total imports), Lithuania, Germany, and Latvia (all three accounting for 10% - data Statistics Estonia). The biggest decrease occurred in imports from Belarus and Russia (down by EUR 484 million and 293 million, respectively) due to the ongoing conflict in Ukraine and the EU sanctions that followed. Overall, the EU accounted for 70% of total exports and 78% of imports.

Estonia's merchandise trade balance is structurally negative. According to figures from WTO, in 2021 the country exported goods worth USD 21.5 billion (+26.7% y-o-y), while imports totalled USD 23.6 billion (+36.1%). In terms of services, Estonia is a net exporter: in 2021 exports reached USD 9.9 billion against USD 8.2 billion in imports. According to the World Bank, the country’s trade balance was negative by 0.4% of GDP. According to figures from the national statistics agency, exports of goods increased by 17% and imports by 23% in 2022 vis-à-vis 2021. Their value was estimated at USD 21.2 billion and 24.5 billion, respectively. Re-exports from Estonia grew by 42%, while exports of domestic goods increased by 7% so that the share of goods of Estonian origin in total exports was 66%.

 
Foreign Trade Values 20182019202020212022
Imports of Goods (million USD) 19,14018,02517,32323,65226,228
Exports of Goods (million USD) 17,01716,10116,34021,54122,405
Imports of Services (million USD) 5,6065,7706,2478,3658,826
Exports of Services (million USD) 7,8918,0576,5529,76211,420

Source: World Trade Organisation (WTO) ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Indicators 20182019202020212022
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 145.9143.8138.5157.0171.6
Trade Balance (million USD) -1,436-1,035-279-1,535-2,793
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) 8421,249-44-178-249
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 5.93.80.421.05.8
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 2.96.1-5.319.95.0
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 71.669.969.278.786.1
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 74.373.969.378.385.5

Source: World Bank ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Forecasts 20232024 (e)2025 (e)2026 (e)2027 (e)
Volume of exports of goods and services (Annual % change) -3.42.74.54.74.7
Volume of imports of goods and services (Annual % change) -7.71.35.15.35.3

Source: IMF, World Economic Outlook ; Latest available data

Note: (e) Estimated Data

 
International Economic Cooperation
Estonia belongs to about 180 international organizations. Estonia has bilateral investment promotion and protection agreements with the USA, Switzerland, Germany, Great Britain, the Czech republic, Austria, Ukraine, Belgium and Luxembourg.
 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2022
Finland 14.1%
Latvia 13.6%
Sweden 8.9%
Russia 6.0%
Lithuania 5.9%
See More Countries 51.6%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2022
Germany 9.4%
Finland 9.1%
China 8.8%
Russia 8.4%
Lithuania 6.7%
See More Countries 57.5%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

Main Products

23.2 bn USD of products exported in 2022
Electrical energyElectrical energy 5.8%
Telephone sets, incl. telephones for cellular...Telephone sets, incl. telephones for cellular networks or for other wireless networks; other apparatus for the transmission or reception of voice, images or other data, incl. apparatus for communication in a wired or wireless network [such as a local or wide area network]; parts thereof (excl. than transmission or reception apparatus of heading 8443, 8525, 8527 or 8528) 5.4%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 5.1%
Oils and other products of the distillation of...Oils and other products of the distillation of high temperature coal tar; similar products in which the weight of the aromatic constituents exceeds that of the non-aromatic constituents 4.8%
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 2.7%
See More Products 76.2%
27.0 bn USD of products imported in 2022
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 8.1%
Electrical energyElectrical energy 5.5%
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 4.8%
Oils and other products of the distillation of...Oils and other products of the distillation of high temperature coal tar; similar products in which the weight of the aromatic constituents exceeds that of the non-aromatic constituents 2.8%
Telephone sets, incl. telephones for cellular...Telephone sets, incl. telephones for cellular networks or for other wireless networks; other apparatus for the transmission or reception of voice, images or other data, incl. apparatus for communication in a wired or wireless network [such as a local or wide area network]; parts thereof (excl. than transmission or reception apparatus of heading 8443, 8525, 8527 or 8528) 2.7%
See More Products 76.2%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

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Latest Update: February 2024