Denmark flag Denmark: Business Environment

Tax rates in Denmark

Tax Rates

Consumption Taxes

Nature of the Tax
VAT (Value-added tax - Meromsætningsafgift MOMS)
Tax Rate
Reduced Tax Rate
There are no reduced rates in Denmark, but some supplies are exempt (see above). Zero-rated supplies include newspapers, supplies to ships, and supplies of gold to the Danish National Bank.
Other Consumption Taxes
Various excise taxes (link in Danish) apply in Denmark to goods from jurisdictions outside the EU. These goods include tobacco, alcoholic beverages, chocolate and other foodstuffs containing sugar, energy products and vehicles, etc. The excise duty rates depend on the type of goods and in some cases on the category of the goods (e.g. the packaging like plastic bags, paper bags).
A motor vehicle tax applies in Denmark (for passenger cars is 25% of the value up to DKK 70.200, 85% on the value between DKK 70,200-218,100 and 150% of the value in excess). Between 2022 and 2026, the motor vehicle tax will gradually increase. Click here for further info.
Denmark also imposes environmental taxes, including carbon dioxide emissions and wastewater taxes.

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Corporate Taxes

Company Tax
Tax Rate For Foreign Companies
Non-resident companies are taxed only on their Denmark-sourced profits.
Denmark does not apply the worldwide taxation principle, hence resident companies are only taxed on their Denmark-sourced income ("territoriality" principle). Therefore, Income from a permanent establishment outside Denmark or from real estate located abroad is excluded from taxable income.
Capital Gains Taxation
Capital gains are included in taxable income and taxed at the corporate income tax rate of 22%. However, gains from subsidiary shares, group shares, or unlisted portfolio shares are exempt, and losses from these sources are nondeductible. Foreign shareholders generally are not subject to Danish capital gains tax on the disposal of shares in Danish companies.
Gains from the sale of real estate property are taxable. Losses from the sale of land and buildings can only be used to offset taxable profits from real estate sales in the same year or carried forward indefinitely. Under certain conditions, a capital gain can be deferred if it is reinvested in properties. This reinvestment must occur no later than the income year following the year of disposal.
Main Allowable Deductions and Tax Credits
Ordinary business expenses are generally deductible. Tax incentives in the form of a full deduction of expenses on R&D, the acquisition of patents and know-how, depreciation on assets acquired for R&D purposes etc. are also available. Annual depreciation allowances for machinery and equipment can be claimed using the diminishing-balance method at a rate of up to 25%. Companies may deduct a small amount in gifts to certain organisations mentioned in the Danish tax authorities' guidelines (up to a maximum of DKK 18,300 for the tax year 2024). A Danish corporation can claim a deduction for royalties, management fees, and similar payments made to foreign affiliates if such amounts are made on an arm's length basis and reflect services received. Bad debts can generally be deducted unless they are inter-company debts.

The deduction for R&D is set at 108% for 2023-2025, and 110% for 2026.
Fines and penalties are generally not deductible, as they are not considered operational expenses. For corporate income tax purposes, taxes are non-deductible except for employer’s tax, non-recoverable VAT, land tax, and coverage charges.
Net operating losses can be offset against taxable income up to DKK 9,457,500 for 2024 (9,135,000 for 2023). Losses exceeding this amount can be deducted up to 60% of the taxable income. The carryback of losses is not permitted.

Other Corporate Taxes
Owners of non-residential property are required to pay land tax annually. The rate, set by the municipalities, ranges from 0.31% to 1.77% of the land's value. Additionally, municipalities may impose a special coverage charge on certain non-residential properties, with rates ranging from 0.08% to 1.8% of the land value.
Stamp tax is payable on certain documents, such as deeds for the transfer of real estate, mortgages related to real estate and cooperative housing, chattels, and intangible assets, as well as property reservations in motor vehicles. Therefore, there is no stamp duty on the transfer of shares. The stamp tax consists of a fixed amount, ranging from DKK 1,825 to DKK 1,850 (2024), along with a predetermined percentage based on this fixed fee.

Danish companies must pay environmental taxes to the companies that provide the energy, who then pay the taxes to the Danish tax authorities. Most of the environmental tax rates are regulated every year and can be partially reimbursed.

The employer’s liability for social security contributions amounts to approx. DKK 14,000-17,000 per year per employee, depending on the industry. Click here for further info.

Shipping companies may elect to pay tonnage tax for a period of 10 years instead of the normal corporate income tax.
Danish oil and gas upstream activities are subject to two "ring-fenced" taxes. The first tax is similar to the standard CIT, with a tax rate of 25% instead of 22%. The income earned from Danish oil and gas upstream activities is also ring-fenced, meaning that no tax losses from other income can be deducted from this income. The second tax, known as the "hydrocarbon tax," is levied on profits from oil and gas exploration and extraction on the Danish continental shelf at a rate of 52%. The 25% tax is deductible when computing the hydrocarbon tax, resulting in an effective tax rate of 64%.

The country does not impose any capital duty, transfer tax, or wealth tax.

Other Domestic Resources
SKAT (Danish Tax and Customs Administration)

Country Comparison For Corporate Taxation

  Denmark OECD United States Germany
Number of Payments of Taxes per Year 10.0 10.1 10.6 9.0
Time Taken For Administrative Formalities (Hours) 132.0 163.6 175.0 218.0
Total Share of Taxes (% of Profit) 23.8 41.6 36.6 48.8

Source: Doing Business, Latest available data.

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Individual Taxes

Tax Rate

Individual Taxable Income
Bottom-bracket tax (up to DKK 58,900, after deduction of the 8% AM-tax) 12.01% of personal income
Top bracket tax 15% of personal income
Local Taxes
Municipal tax (average) 25.067%
Labour Market tax 8%
Share tax
From DKK 0 to 61,000 27% (on share income)
Above DKK 61,000 42% (on share income)
Altogether, the marginal tax rate in 2024 cannot exceed 52.07%
Church tax
(imposed by municipalities only on members of the Danish State Lutheran Church)
0.65% (average)
Allowable Deductions and Tax Credits
There are several types of deductions that are available to taxpayers, including a personal allowance of DKK 49,700 in 2024 and an employment allowance (10.6% of the employment income capped at DKK 45,100 in 2024). Other possible deductions include interest expenses, child support payments (varying according to the age of the children and the family status), pension contributions (up to DKK 63,100), trade union fees, unemployment fund fees, and work commuting expenses. Interest expenses are deductible from capital income and are generally deducted in the year in which they fall due.
Contributions to charitable organizations are deductible up to a limit of DKK 18,300 per year. Certain approved expenses related to household services may be deducted up to a maximum of DKK 11,900 per person. Travel expenses can be deducted up to a maximum of DKK 31,600 annually (2024). A deduction is granted for daily travel to and from work, provided employees are not given a company car and the employer does not cover the transportation costs. The distance from home to work and back must exceed 24 kilometers. In 2024, the deduction is DKK 2.23 per kilometer for distances between 25 and 120 kilometers, and DKK 1.12 per kilometer for distances exceeding 120 kilometers. For individuals living in certain outskirt areas, the allowance is DKK 2.19 per kilometer for distances exceeding 120 kilometers.
In 2024, a tax-free child benefit of DKK 20,496 per annum is payable to the custodial parent of children aged 0 to 2 (inclusive), provided the parent is fully tax liable to Denmark and not covered by the social security system in their home country. The annual benefit is DKK 16,224 for children aged 3 to 6, and DKK 12,768 for children aged 7 to 14, with payments made quarterly. For children aged 15 to 17, the benefit is DKK 4,256 per year. Additionally, an individual who pays child support maintenance due to divorce is entitled to an annual deduction per child.
A detailed list of possible deductions is available on the SKAT website.
Special Expatriate Tax Regime
Under the special expatriate tax regime, expatriates working in Denmark and scientists assigned to Denmark may qualify for a fixed tax rate of 27% on their gross salary for a maximum of 84 months. Several conditions must be satisfied, including a minimum guaranteed monthly salary, before deducting eligible employee pension contributions, of at least DKK 75,100 (2024) on average throughout the calendar year. Specific provisions are in place for researchers. The 27% tax rate applies to the cash salary, employer-provided telephone/internet services, the taxable value of employer-provided company cars, and employer-paid taxable health insurance. All other income is subject to regular taxation rules, with no deductions permitted against the flat-rate taxed income. Although the employee's tenure in Denmark may extend beyond the 84-month period, their income is subsequently taxed at standard rates. With the application of the labor market tax, the combined tax rate amounts to 32.84% annually during the 84-month timeframe.

An individual with limited tax liability to Denmark will, as a main rule, be taxed by up to 52.07% (55.90%, including AM tax) on income from sources in Denmark in 2024.

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Double Taxation Treaties

Countries With Whom a Double Taxation Treaty Have Been Signed
List of international tax treaties signed by Denmark
Withholding Taxes
  • Dividends: 0% (if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the dividends and owns at least 10% of the share capital of the payer, and the withholding tax would be reduced or eliminated under the EU parent-subsidiary directive or an applicable tax treaty)/15% (if the recipient holds less than 10% of the payer company)/27% (to non-residents, but companies can reclaim 5%, hence the effective rate is 22%);
  • Interest: 0% (residents and non-residents)/22% (paid to a foreign group member company that is tax resident outside the EU or any of the states with which Denmark has concluded a tax treaty);
  • Royalties: 0% (residents)/22% (non-residents)

The above rates may be reduced under tax treaties.

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Sources of Fiscal Information

Tax Authorities
Danish Ministry of Taxation
SKAT (Danish Tax and Customs Administration)
Other Domestic Resources
Invest in Denmark - Tax guide

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Latest Update: July 2024