Argentina flag Argentina: Economic and Political Overview

The political framework of Argentina

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Alberto Fernández (since 10 December 2019); the president is both chief of state and head of government.
Next Election Dates
President: October 2023
Legislative (Senate and Chamber of Deputies): October 2023
Current Political Context
President Alberto Fernández, who took office in December 2019, was elected on pledges to resurrect the Argentinian economy after a long period of economic downturns. However, the negative economic and social impacts of the pandemic and the setbacks in the reopening process resulted in a significant fall in popularity. In 2021, the moderate stance of the government gave way to the hardliner and interventionist orientation linked to Vice-President Cristina Kirchner. As a result, at the legislative elections, which took place in November 2021, Argentina's ruling Peronist party saw its centre-left coalition lose its majority in Congress for the first time in almost 40 years.In March 2022, the Congress approved a USD 45 billion debt agreement with IMF. However, as the IMF is not a popular institution among Argentines, the deal can further decrease the president's popularity. Nevertheless, the deal will provide investors with legal and macroeconomic certainty, which is a big step in returning to meaningful growth and a significant part of the president's strategy to attract new investment while dealing with Argentina’s debt problem and addressing other issues such as inflation, poverty, and unemployment. Furthermore, a rift between Fernandez and Kirchner has added to the country's instability, as the Vice President forced out the country's first finance minister, Martin Guzman, in July 2022, for trying to implement an agreement with the IMF that required a considerable reduction of the deficit and stricter control of the money supply by the central bank. After his departure, Sergio Massa became minister of the economy, production and agriculture, with his main focus being controlling the country's rising inflation by reducing public spending and boosting foreign reserves. As the country approaches general elections in 2023, politics and economics have been getting even more intertwined, as Argentina's economic situation is likely to impact the ballots.
Main Political Parties
- Everyone's Front (Frente de Todos): coalition which aims to create a union of all parties of centre-left and left-wing, peronism, kirchnerism, social democracy, democratic socialism, and progressivism
- Together For Change (JxC): formerly known as Cambiemos. Centre-left to centre-right, big-tent coalition, liberalism, conservatism, social democracy, federal peronism, and Christian democracy
- Federal Consensus (Consenso Federal): centre political coalition, federal peronism, and progressivism
- Workers' Left Front (FIT): far-left alliance, ideologically identifies with Trotskyism
- Advance Freedom (Avanza Libertad): centre-right coalition, economic liberalism, social conservatism
- We (NOS): right-wing coalition, Catholic nationalism, conservatism, right-wing populism
Executive Power
Executive power is held by the President of the Argentine nation and is his/her responsibility to respond to national interests. The President is the Head of the Government and the Chief of State, the individual responsible for the general administration of the country and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The President is elected by universal suffrage for a four-year term and can be re-elected for a subsequent consecutive term of office. The Vice President is elected alongside the President. The President appoints individuals to the Council of Ministers.

Argentina has 23 provinces and one autonomous federal district - each retains some powers that do not belong to the federal government and elects their own legislators and provincial governors.

Legislative Power
The legislative power is held by the bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional). The Chamber of Deputies (the lower house) is comprised of 257 members, which are elected to four-year terms by direct universal suffrage, with half of the membership renewed every two years. The Senate (upper house) is comprised of 72 members, which are elected to six-year terms by direct universal suffrage - with one third of the members elected every two years.

Indicator of Freedom of the Press


The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:

Indicator of Political Freedom


The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Political Freedom:

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House


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Latest Update: November 2023