Angola flag Angola: Economic and Political Overview

The economic context of Angola

Economic Indicators

For the latest updates on the key economic responses from governments to address the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, please consult the IMF's policy tracking platform Policy Responses to COVID-19.

Largest oil producer in Africa, Angola also has the third largest GDP in sub-Saharan Africa (IMF). Economic growth is prone to large fluctuations, depending on oil production and prices levels. After the recession induced by the fall in oil prices and in world demand, restrictions under the OPEC+ production agreement and the COVID-19 pandemic, economic growth started to recover. From an estimated 0.8% in 2021, GDP growth picked up to 2.9% in 2022, supported by higher oil prices, improved oil production, and resilient non-oil activity (IMF). According to IMF’s latest estimates, GDP growth is expected to further accelerate to 3.5% in 2023 and reach about 4% in the medium term, thanks to structural reforms supporting the non-oil sector.

In 2022, the Angolan economy continued to recover from the pandemic-induced crisis, supported by stronger agriculture and services sector output, and by faster expansion of the oil sector amid the fallout from the war in Ukraine (Focus Economics). Despite the end of the IMF-supported program, continued reforms supported the economy. Overall fiscal balance worsened from 3.8% GDP in 2021 to 1.7% GDP in 2022, following higher-than-budgeted capital expenditure and higher-than-expected fuel subsidy costs, and is expected to be negative in 2023 (-0.4%) (IMF). The 2023 budget envisions a resumption of fiscal adjustment. Benefitting from a stronger exchange rate, public debt continued to drop, from 86.4% GDP in 2021 to 56.6% GDP in 2022. It is expected to further reduce to 52.5% GDP in 2023 and 47.9% GDP in 2024 (IMF). Driven by lower global food prices, a stronger kwanza, and previous efforts by the central bank to tighten monetary policy, inflation decreased from 25.8% in 2021 to 21.7% in 2022, and it is forecast to further decline to 11.8% in 2023 and 9.9% in 2023 (IMF). The 2023 budget reflects the authorities’ commitment to prudent budget management and support to inclusive growth, increasing the allocation for health, education and fight against poverty. Among the many challenges faced by the country, strengthening debt sustainability, addressing the financial sector’s weaknesses, diversifying the economy, improving governance and developing human capital and infrastructure should be key priorities (IMF).

President Joao Lourenço initiated numerous reforms aimed at reducing the influence of the dos Santos family on the economy, improving the perception of the business climate and getting the country out of the crisis, but the social situation of Angola remains tensed. Inequalities and inflation are nourishing people's dissatisfaction. Only a third of the population has access to electricity. The income per capita has been gradually increasing, especially in the metropolitan regions, but poverty and unemployment rates remain high. According to the African Development Bank, the pandemic is likely to have exacerbated the official poverty incidence of 40.6%. Poverty is more dominant in rural areas (around 60%) than in urban areas (around 20%). The unemployment rate fell below 30% in Q4 2022, but youth unemployment remained above 50% (INE). According to the World Bank data (modelled ILO estimate) unemployment rate was at 8.5% of labour force in 2021. Violence in the region of Kasaï (Democratic Republic of Congo) provoked the arrival of more than 30,000 refugees in Angola.

Main Indicators 20222023 (E)2024 (E)2025 (E)2026 (E)
GDP (billions USD) 122.7893.8092.9396.90100.79
GDP (Constant Prices, Annual % Change)
GDP per Capita (USD) 3,4382,5502,4532,4832,507
General Government Balance (in % of GDP) 0.3-
General Government Gross Debt (in % of GDP) 66.784.977.167.961.0
Inflation Rate (%) n/a13.122.318.110.1
Current Account (billions USD) 11.762.883.472.591.80
Current Account (in % of GDP)

Source: IMF – World Economic Outlook Database, October 2021

Main Sectors of Industry

Angola is Africa's largest oil producer, overtaking Nigeria, a net producer of natural gas and also the third largest producer of diamonds in the continent, surpassed only by Botswana and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Angolan economy - the third largest in sub-Saharan Africa - is dominated by the oil and gas industry, which accounts for about 50% of its GDP and is the primary source of revenue for the country (more than 70% of government revenue and 90% of Angola's exports come from oil activities). In addition to diamonds, the country also produces gold, granite, gypsum, marble, and salt, and possesses numerous undeveloped minerals with potential for extraction including beryllium, clay, copper, iron-ore, lead, lignite, manganese, mica, nickel, peat, phosphate rock, quartz, silver, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. The industrial sector represents 44.1% of GDP and 7% of employment (World Bank).

Despite its potential, the agricultural sector is underdeveloped and not very productive, contributing to 7.9% of GDP but employs 51% of the population (World Bank). Only about a third of Angola's arable land is used for harvests; of those, only 100,000 out of 5 million arable hectares benefit from machinery and/or animal traction for sowing and harvesting. Angola's agriculture mainly consists of subsistence farming. The key industrial crops are coffee and cotton. The Government heavily invested in coffee, sugarcane and ethanol productions, which should help to diversify agricultural revenues and exports.

The services sector (banking, communication, tourism) is also growing rapidly, accounting for 46.5% of GDP and employing 42% of the population. Tourism is growing, although there is a severe shortage of hotels and other types of accommodation. The construction sector is booming (9% of GDP), driven by a large reconstruction program launched by the government.

Breakdown of Economic Activity By Sector Agriculture Industry Services
Employment By Sector (in % of Total Employment) 58.7 7.8 33.5
Value Added (in % of GDP) 13.6 44.9 41.6
Value Added (Annual % Change) 3.9 1.8 4.2

Source: World Bank, Latest Available Data. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.


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Indicator of Economic Freedom


The Economic freedom index measure ten components of economic freedom, grouped into four broad categories or pillars of economic freedom: Rule of Law (property rights, freedom from corruption); Limited Government (fiscal freedom, government spending); Regulatory Efficiency (business freedom, labour freedom, monetary freedom); and Open Markets (trade freedom, investment freedom, financial freedom). Each of the freedoms within these four broad categories is individually scored on a scale of 0 to 100. A country’s overall economic freedom score is a simple average of its scores on the 10 individual freedoms.}}

World Rank:
Regional Rank:

Economic freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Index of Economic Freedom, Heritage Foundation


Business environment ranking


The business rankings model measures the quality or attractiveness of the business environment in the 82 countries covered by The Economist Intelligence Unit’s Country Forecast reports. It examines ten separate criteria or categories, covering the political environment, the macroeconomic environment, market opportunities, policy towards free enterprise and competition, policy towards foreign investment, foreign trade and exchange controls, taxes, financing, the labour market and infrastructure.

World Rank:

Source: The Economist Intelligence Unit - Business Environment Rankings 2020-2024


Country Risk

See the country risk analysis provided by Coface.

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Sources of General Economic Information

Ministry of Finance
Ministry of Economy and Planification
Ministry of Energy and Water
Ministry of Mineral Ressources and Oil
Ministry of Fishing
Statistical Office
National Statistics Institute
Central Bank
Banco Nacional de Angola
Stock Exchange
Bolsa de Divida e Valores de Angola
Economic Portals
Portal de Angola

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Latest Update: February 2024